Eating Patterns and Weight Gain During Pregnancy.
Nutritional Needs of Lactation
A nursing mother may produce up to a litre of milk per day amounting to some 600-700 calories/day. In addition to this of course, energy is needed to produce this quantity and so the energy allowance for a lactating woman is about 750 calories above her normal needs.
Nutritional Needs of the Newborn
Not only does early nutrition affect later development, but also, during infancy eating habits are established that will affect nutritional status for a lifetime. A baby grows faster during the first years of life than ever again.
Nutritional Needs of Childhood and Adolescence
After the age of one the child’s growth rate slows, but the body continues to change and develop. The child learns to stand and walk and these accomplishments are possible due to the accumulation of a larger body mass and greater bone density and muscle tissue.
The hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle are powerful and affect not only the uterus and ovaries but they also alter the metabolic rate, glucose tolerance, appetite, food intake, mood and behaviour.
Menopause signals the time in a woman’s life when ovulation ceases. It usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, although the age of onset can vary greatly.